Segmentation Procedure

The 3 basics steps of customer segmentation

  • Step 1: Group consumers according to their “needs”, “benefits” they seek from the product and occasions they use the product.
  • Step 2: Do a persona analysis. Identify a typical consumer from each segment based on demographics (age, gender, location) and lifestyles (hobbies, spending habits, media use, etc.).
  • Step 3: Asses the attractiveness of each segment
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Growth Strategies

The following strategies will help you come up with better ideas

  1. Sales Growth
  2. ANSOFF Matrix
  3. Market Penetration Strategy
  4. Blue Ocean Strategy
  5. Value Co-creation as a Brand Strategy
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How to Come Up with Advertising Ideas

This presentation shows 15 different patterns that can help marketing students come up with different advertisements.


The patterns


Attract Attention (A)
Increase Interest in the product (I)
Create Desire to get the product (D)
Lead to an Action to get the product (A)

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Social Media Marketing Frameworks

Here is my post about social media marketing frameworks.


  • 1. Here is my post about social media marketing frameworks.
  • 2. How Does Social Media Work? Paid Media TV, radio, magazines, newspapers, outdoor ads, banner ads, etc. Owned Media Brand’s website, applications, mail magazines, brand’s Facebook page, brand’s Twitter account Earned Media Fans’ posts on Facebook, fans’ posts on Youtube, Fan’s posts on Twitter, any kind of word of mouth, etc. Creates brand relationships because people want to be closer to brands they love Creates Brand Awareness because more people are exposed to the brand Generates Brand Trust because WOM is more believable Ordinary people Hard core brand users
  • 3. Altimeter’s Consumer Decision Making Cycle Evaluation Purchase Experience LoyaltyAdvocate Awareness Consideration
  • 4. How do consumers make a decision? Dentsu’s AISAS model Attention Consumers notice the brand’s presence Interest Consumers’ interest increases after interacting with the brand online or interacting with other people online Search Consumers search more information by using search engines, social media or other platforms Action (purchase) Advocacy/Sha re Customers share their experiences via social media
  • 5. Why do consumers like branded fan pages? Attitude toward the brand fan page Attitude toward the brand Purchase intention Entertaining content Identification with the brand Belief that the brand can be used for self- presentation Economic incentive (e.g. like and win) Informational content Source: Kleine-Kalmer & Burman , 2012)
  • 6. What kind of social media campaigns do brands run? Consumer Tasks in Social Media Promotions Upload a photo, video or something you make/create Answer a question/ answer quiz Mention the brand in your messages or post special messages by including the brand tag the brand in your pictures or tag yourself in the brand’s pictures Check in at a certain place Use the brand creatively and upload your artwork/photo/ video to the brand’s page vote for one of the options provided (flavor, design, logo, slogan, charity organization etc.)
  • 7. What is “social” corporate strategy? Co-ops/Non-profits Not profit driven, the goal of the company is transforming society by educating and empowering people Very Social Corporations Has own social media platform, social media is the main focus of the brand, uses crowdsourcing as much as possible, Value co-creation is the main focus, Business model is based on a social premise Social Corporations Uses crowdsourcing and value co-creation occasionally, very active in social media, has some CSR activities, allocates a significant amount of budget for social media Ordinary Corporations Uses social media because competitors are using it, uses only major social media tools, does not allocate a significant amount of budget for social media Some B2B companies These companies do not openly engage with their clients in social media. They are not concerned about not being very “social” Coca-Cola and Toyota They use social media as much as possible and they use various platforms but for them social media is just a tool to drive sales. Starbucks,,Etsy These companies have a very clear social mission and they cannot function well if they don’t actively interact with local communities and customers Grameen Bank’s goal is reducing poverty not giving dividents to investors. It is owned by the poor people and the goal of the corporation is not profit maximazation
  • 8. Promotional Social Media Strategy Objectives WHAT IS THE PURPOSE? Short term Goals: What is the brand trying to achieve? *Increasing awareness *increasing brand engagement *motivating people to buy *motivating people to try *motivating people to come to store *motivating people to share info *enabling people to discover *increasing loyalty, *strengthening brand image, upselling, cross-selling(selling more products to the same customers), *getting Free PR, *WOM, etc. Long Term Goals/Indirect Effects What happens when the campaign is over? *Repeat purchase, *increased loyalty * increased user base *contribution to the brand image *contribution to other businesses * access to influencers * ability to contact with the participants in the future, etc. Channels WHICH SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNEL? #Number of Platforms *Only one platform *Multiple platforms *A new platform (own or other) *Websites, blogs, forums, *QR/AR *A new application (s) Ratio of Offline Activities/Mobile *Offline touch points (e.g. in store activity, booths in public places, etc.) *Heavily mobile ( Check- in, offline tasks, campaign is only available at a certain place at a certain time, etc.) Participants WHO IS THE TARGET? Current fans/customers Current suppliers and distributors Friends of currents fans A person or group current fans designate New fans/prospects Any user on the platform Specific users of the platform Any person that our message reaches Specific segments that we reach Techniques WHAT KIND OF PROMOTION? Traditional Promotional Techniques Coupons, contests, sweepstakes etc. Original Promotional Techniques (possibility to get Free PR) Incentives WHY SHOULD PEOPLE PARTICIPATE? Motivations *Curiosity *Immediate benefit *introduced by a friend *triggered by a purchase *virality of the campaign *social expectations *group identity *fun *fantasy *convenience *boredom Rewards *Cash *product(s) *gift card * discount *points *enjoyment/fun *social rewards
  • 9. How do companies use social media? Social Media Communicate EXPERTISE A brand must be an expert in an area. A furniture brand must be an expert in home design and a shampoo brand must be an expert in hair care. Educating people about the area of expertise would build trust and credibility. Leverage CORE USERS All brands have core users who really love those brands. Social media should be used to share the opinions and views of the hard core brand users. Build a COMMUNITY/Forum Having a community or forum about the brand would attract more attention and also increase brand affinity/repeat purchase rates.
  • 10. Why do companies use social media? Immediate NetworkEffects Faster&Cheaper Retention EasytoMonitor A magazine ad may reach one person one time only. However, if a consumer becomes a fan in social media, companies can send a message to that person over and over again. Traditional media is one way communication. However, social media is interactive and more importantly social media makes it very easy to share content (frictionless sharing) so the recipients can easily share messages with their network members. The effects of social media can be seen right away where in traditional media it may take months to see any media effect. Producing content is faster in social media. It costs money to create a TV program or a radio program but maintaining a Youtube channel or a Facebook page does not cost much. The behavior of recipients in social media can be easily monitored hour by hour, day by day (likes, shares, views, comments, etc.).
  • 11. What is the most effective social media platform?  This depends on the product category but a study found that blogger relations (collaborating with influential bloggers or vloggers) is the most effective method. Blogger Relations Blogging Social Media SEO Multimedia Content Sharing Email Content Sharing Microblogging Social Networks Cost Effectiveness Source: Iris Utz, 2012
  • 12. What are some creative social media campaigns? This link has many examples:  media-promotional-campaigns/
  • 13. How do brands increase their social media followers?  Ask their current customers to follow their page by giving them a compelling incentive.  Buy targeted ads on Facebook or promoted trends on Twitter. Advertising on social media platforms makes brands more visible to many people who may not know about them.  Ask people to follow their social media page via traditional tools (e.g. Print ads, TV ads, product package, etc.)  Post funny/cute/popular images or quotations that are not necessarily related with their brand.  Join interest networks (e.g. LinkedIn, Cookpad, Nico Nico Douga, Cosme etc.) and promote their major social media account in those networks.  Collaborate with active bloggers and influential people and making them promote their social media accounts.  Give prizes to new followers (every single follower or selected followers by lottery). Some prizes can be coupons, cash, gift cards, discounts, points, badges, brands’ own products, popular products (e.g. the IPad), vacation, appearing in an ad, etc.  Actively follow people on Twitter, Yotube and blogs and then expect that they will follow the brand’s account back. (E.g. if a person follows you on Twitter, you can also ask that person to follow your brand on Facebook as well or vice a versa)  Creating a viral video or organizing a sensational event that will put a spotlight on the brand’s social media account. Most branded viral videos are long commercials that tell an emotional story. Last year Red Bull sponsored Felix Baumgartner’s jump from the stratosphere which was live broadcasted via Youtube and watched millions of times.
  • 14. What do brands communicate via social media? 1. Information about the brand/product, brand attributes, etc. 2. Image(s) of an existing/new products 3. Benefits of or feeling of using the brand in a fun/interesting/unique way 4. The results of using the brand (e.g. a testimonial by a user, (Nikon camera— a picture taken by the camera, Kikkoman— picture of a meal with Kikkoman, a picture of a fan using the brand, etc.) 5. Brand’s advertisement or brand’s promotional or informational video/image 6. Brand, package logo or branded material is an art form or part of nature (A statue made out of Coke bottles, script on a coffee cup(Starbucks)) 7. Brand serves community, brand supports a person, people, a cause. Brand’s social mission, brand’s CSR activities 8. Sponsorships, events organized by the brand, events related to the brand, TV program related to the brand or mentions the brand etc. 9. Information, suggestions, recommendations about the brand or the product category (recipes, fashion tips, infographics, etc.) 10. Expert advice, interviews with experts, experts picks, experts’ favorites. 11. Behind the scenes (how the product is being made, the research lab, how employees are preparing, etc.) 12. Brand is part of users’ life (e.g. a user has a Coke tattoo on his arm, user is holding brand’s logo, or Coke bottles in ones room) 13. News, blog posts, videos related with the brand, corporation, product category, etc. 14. News, blog posts, videos unrelated to brand/product category 15. Questions: 1- Fill-in-the-blank (Kikkoman is best used for …….) 2- either Or : Do you like Kikkoman light or Kikkoman original? 16. Polls Related with the brand, brand’s history: When was Kikkoman founded? Unrelated to the brand: What is your favorite holiday meal? 17. Photo question: Do you know what ethnic dish this is? Where’s this photo taken? Come up with a caption for this photo. what goes well with this t-shirt? Etc. 18. Reminders about campaigns, promotions, events offers (Our Spring campaign will be over in 2 days!!!) 19. Celebrations, holidays, happy birthday, special days, congratulations, cheers, related with celebrations (Happy 4th of July, happy Friday, etc.) 20. Cute, funny, humorous, interesting, relaxing image/text unrelated to the brand or product (relaxing scenery, babies, cats, etc.) 21. Quotations, cartoons, memes. 22. Appreciation, gratitude (thanks for following us, we reached …. fans, thank you) 23. Sharing a fan’s or another user’s post 24. Intriguing posts (share this if you feel happy today, like this if you can spot the elephant in this photo, etc.) 25. Featuring the company’s employees, employee’s favorite products, employees picks, etc. 26. Brand in the media, brand covered by the media organs, blogs, etc. 27. Spotlighting partners, spotlighting fans 28. News (what is going on, what is new) 29. New profile photo, new profile cover 30. User tips, tricks, How-to’s
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Social Media Promotional Campaigns

Pattern 1:

Participants post a message in social media and that message moves a person, a celebrity or an object in real life. The activity then is broadcasted live or shared via media. Examples:

Old Spice

1 Facebook like = 1 balloon

Smile = fresh orange juice

Corona Digital Display

Pattern 2: The brand creates a personalized/customized artwork (video, song, image, etc.) or a product based on users’ photos or messages in social media

Dell’s museum of me

Cadbury’s olympic parade

Pattern 3: The treasure hunt.The brand hides something somewhere and leaves cues in social media for users to find it.

Jimmy Choo

To Catch a Shoe: Jimmy Choo’s Foursquare… 投稿者 FORAtv

Levi’s I spy campaign

Pattern 4: Users Post a message in social media and get something right away

Pattern 5: Users do something in real life and that is shared in social media automatically

Pattern 6: Other campaigns

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Royalty free images for blogs, websites, student competitions



There are several sources on the internet where students can get free images without any copyright infringement concerns. Although it is not always required it would be safe to indicate the name of the creator and the platform. It is also always helpful to read “terms of use.”


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Culture and Social Media




 Did you know???
American college students are more likely to post obscene content in social media compared to German college students. Peluchette et al., 2010
Americans are more concerned about online privacy than Chinese and Indians. Wang et al., 2011
Compared to American social media users, Chinese users care less about being popular online and less likely to post self-promoting content. Chinese internet users spend less amount of time for social media than Americans. Jackson & Wang, 2013
Chinese brand messages that are shared in social media usually focus on popularity, symbolism, and social status while American brand messages use the appeals of individualism and hedonic consumption. Tsai & Men, 2012
RenRen users in China are more likely to digitally customize their profile pictures compared to American Facebook users. Zhao & Jiang, 2011
Americans are more likely to post Facebook messages that are about themselves and what is happening in their immediate environment versus Indians who post about interests, ideas, religions etc. Sharrock, 2013
Tokyoites tend to post pictures on Instagram that have red-yellow tones versus New Yorkers who post pictures with blue-gray tones.65 Hochman & Schwarts, 2012
Facebook photos posted in Namibia predominantly focus on individuals and show less of any background and object. Peters et al., 2012
Americans in general don’t have any problem posting their own pictures in social media while one third of Indians abstain to do so Marshall et al., 2008
Middle Eastern students are less likely to show their faces in their profile photos compared to American college students Auter & Elmasry, 2012
The most positive tweets in the world are posted by Brazilians and (as a result of the country’s collectivistic nature) people in collectivistic countries (e.g. Indonesia) are more densely connected on Twitter than people from individualistic countries (e.g. Australia) Poblete et al., 2011
An online event schedule platform indicated that Colombians in general schedule events 12 days in advance versus Germans who usually schedule events 28 days in advance. Reinecke et al., 2013
A huge majority (87%) of Norwegian brands chose to answer questions asked to them on Facebook while this ratio is only 45% brands in the United Kingdom. Eve, 2012
Turkish people   are the most active social media users (93% report sharing something online in the past month) and Japanese have the lowest engagement rate (70% of Japanese report not posting anything in social media in the past month). IPSOS, 2013
Compared to the social media activities of American top 100 brands, Japanese top 100 brands ask fewer questions, post less frequently, don’t address their fans directly, don’t initiate conversations with their fans , reveal less info on their profiles, and do not allow fans to post on their walls. Acar et al., 2013
Japanese college students tweet more about themselves and TV and less about news, sports and family compared to American college students Acar & Deguchi, 2013
25% of Japanese Twitter accounts are protected (tweets are not public) while this ratio is lower than 7% all around the world. Adam Acar, Culture and Social Media.
28% of Japanese Facebook users did not show their faces in their profile photos while only 8% of Americans chose to do so.
For Japanese college students the most popular Facebook content category to “like” is “landscape/scenery” unlike international students who chose the “funny/humorous” as their most favorite.
Japanese Facebook users are less likely to share a picture of their partners and their families than do American college students. On the other hand, they are more positive about friending their professors on Facebook.
Japanese Facebook users are about 10 times less likely to share a content they liked on Facebook compared to Americans and 10 times less likely to comment on a content they liked on Facebook compared to Germans.

(Taken from my latest paper Culture, Corruption, Suicide, Happiness and Global Social Media Use by Inderscience)

To read more about culture and social media check out my book


Image Credit Chi King

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